Eco-friendly Portugal: Green Travel Tips for Environmentalists

Eco-friendly Portugal: Green Travel Tips for Environmentalists

When it comes to sustainable tourism, Portugal is a leading destination for eco-conscious travelers. With its breathtaking landscapes, vibrant culture, and commitment to responsible travel, the country offers a unique experience for those seeking a greener vacation. From reducing waste to supporting local communities, here are some essential tips for eco-friendly travel in Portugal.

Key Takeaways:

  • Choose eco-friendly accommodations that prioritize sustainability
  • Explore Portugal’s beautiful landscapes through slow travel options
  • Support local communities and prioritize inclusivity and human rights
  • Minimize plastic waste and choose sustainable dining options
  • Reduce your carbon footprint through energy and water conservation

Spotting Greenwashing: Ensuring Responsible Booking

When it comes to responsible travel, it’s important to be aware of greenwashing – misleading marketing practices that falsely portray a company as environmentally friendly. To ensure you make responsible booking decisions for your trip to Portugal, take the time to research and scrutinize the company’s ownership, values, and commitment to sustainability.

Avoid falling victim to greenwashing by looking for accommodations in Portugal that prioritize regenerative projects and ethical practices. These businesses demonstrate a genuine commitment to preserving the environment and benefiting local communities through their sustainable initiatives.

Here are some key factors to consider when assessing a company’s commitment to responsible travel:

  1. Ownership: Research the background and values of the company’s owners. Look for businesses that are transparent about their sustainability efforts and have a track record of investing in regenerative projects.
  2. Renewable Energy: Determine if the accommodations prioritize renewable energy sources such as solar or wind power. Supporting establishments that embrace sustainable energy practices contributes to reducing reliance on fossil fuels and mitigating climate change.
  3. Human Rights: Check if the company actively supports and respects human rights. Look for indications of fair labor practices, diversity and inclusion, and support for worker welfare.
  4. Biodiversity: Assess whether the accommodations take steps to preserve and protect biodiversity. This can include efforts to conserve local flora and fauna, use sustainable land management practices, and support conservation projects.
  5. Local Economic Growth: See if the company is committed to supporting the local economy by sourcing products and services from local businesses. This ensures that tourism benefits the communities and fosters sustainable development.

By being proactive in your research and selecting accommodations that prioritize responsible travel practices, you can make a positive impact on the environment and support businesses that genuinely care about sustainability and ethical travel.

Key Factors Questions to Consider
Ownership Who are the owners, and do they prioritize sustainability?
Renewable Energy What renewable energy sources do they utilize?
Human Rights How does the company support and respect human rights?
Biodiversity What efforts are made to preserve and protect biodiversity?
Local Economic Growth Does the company support the local economy and community?

Remember, responsible and ethical travel begins with making informed choices and supporting businesses that align with your values. By staying vigilant against greenwashing and choosing accommodations dedicated to sustainability, you can contribute to a more responsible and environmentally conscious tourism industry in Portugal.

Slow Travel: Enjoying the Journey and Minimizing Emissions

When exploring Portugal, consider embracing slow travel to minimize your carbon footprint and immerse yourself in the beauty of the country. Slow travel encourages a more conscious and sustainable approach, allowing you to appreciate the journey as much as the destination.

One of the key aspects of slow travel is opting for land-based transportation methods that are eco-friendly. Consider renting electric cars or bikes to explore Portugal’s cities and countryside. This not only reduces emissions but also allows you to experience the sights and sounds at a leisurely pace.

If you’re feeling adventurous, why not try kayaking along Portugal’s stunning coastline or rivers? This eco-friendly mode of transport not only offers a unique perspective, but also allows you to connect with nature and experience the serenity of the water.

Additionally, European rail travel is becoming increasingly popular among slow travelers. Portugal is well-connected to other European destinations by rail, making it easier than ever to explore neighboring countries while minimizing your environmental impact.

By slowing down and embracing eco-friendly transportation options, you can not only reduce your carbon emissions but also appreciate the backdrops, stories, and nuances that may be missed when rushing from one place to another.

Benefits of Slow Travel:

  • Reduced carbon footprint
  • Appreciation for local landscapes and culture
  • Connection with nature
  • Support for local communities
  • Less stress and more relaxation
Transportation Method Emissions Impact Benefits
Electric Car Low Zero-emission travel, convenient for exploring cities and rural areas
Bike Zero Exercise, immerse in local culture, and navigate narrow streets
Kayak Zero Connect with nature, explore coastlines and rivers
Rail Low Efficient, scenic, and allows for easy exploration of neighboring countries

Promoting Inclusivity and Human Rights

Responsible and sustainable travel involves addressing social justice issues. When planning your next trip to Portugal, choose travel companies that prioritize inclusivity, human rights, and supporting marginalized communities. It’s important to look for diverse and equitable workforces, accessibility for disabled travelers, non-homogenized marketing imagery, and a respectful preservation of local communities and cultures.

By supporting sustainable travel companies, you contribute to a more inclusive and fair travel industry. These companies actively work towards creating a positive impact on both the environment and society, aligning their practices with the principles of inclusivity and human rights.

Key considerations when choosing sustainable travel companies:

  • Diverse and equitable workforces: Look for companies that prioritize diversity and inclusivity in their hiring practices. These companies create opportunities for individuals from different backgrounds and communities, fostering a sense of belonging and empowerment.
  • Accessibility for disabled travelers: Seek out travel companies that prioritize accessibility for individuals with disabilities. They should provide accommodations and facilities that cater to the needs of disabled travelers, ensuring they can fully enjoy their travel experiences.
  • Non-homogenized marketing imagery: Choose companies that showcase the authentic diversity of the destinations they promote. Avoid companies that rely on stereotypical or exclusionary representations, as this perpetuates biases and limits inclusivity.
  • Preservation of local communities and cultures: Support travel companies that prioritize the preservation and respect of local communities and cultures. They should engage in responsible tourism practices, ensuring that the economic benefits of tourism reach local residents and that cultural heritage is valued and protected.
Features Benefits
Diverse and equitable workforces Enhanced representation and opportunities for underrepresented groups
Accessibility for disabled travelers Inclusive travel experiences for individuals with disabilities
Non-homogenized marketing imagery Authentic representation and promotion of diverse cultures
Preservation of local communities and cultures Safeguarding of local traditions, economic benefits, and cultural heritage

Eco-friendly Portugal: Green Travel Tips for EnvironmentalistsWaste Reduction: Minimizing Single-use Plastics

Although many countries have banned single-use plastics, throwaway culture remains a significant issue. When vacationing in Portugal, it is important to commit to reducing and reusing in order to minimize plastic waste. By being mindful of your plastic consumption and supporting accommodations and restaurants that actively minimize their use of single-use plastics, you can make a positive impact on the environment. Additionally, proper waste disposal and supporting establishments that recycle and use eco-friendly materials are essential in contributing to waste reduction and recycling efforts.

Benefits of Waste Reduction and Recycling

  • Preserving natural resources
  • Reducing plastic pollution in oceans and landfills
  • Conserving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions
  • Promoting a circular economy

Below is a table highlighting common single-use plastics and sustainable alternatives:

Single-Use Plastic Sustainable Alternative
Plastic water bottles Reusable water bottles
Plastic bags Reusable cloth or tote bags
Plastic cutlery Bamboo or stainless steel cutlery
Plastic straws Metal, glass, or bamboo straws
Plastic food containers Reusable glass or stainless steel containers

By employing these sustainable alternatives, you can significantly reduce your plastic waste and contribute to waste reduction and recycling efforts.

Recognizing Responsible Accreditations

When choosing accommodations and businesses in Portugal, it’s important to look for responsible accreditations and certifications that highlight their commitment to sustainability. These certifications ensure that the establishments have met certain social and environmental standards, making them a great choice for eco-conscious travelers.

One prestigious accreditation to look out for is the B Corporation certification. B Corporations, such as Sawday’s and Joro Experiences, are businesses that have undergone rigorous assessments and have proven their dedication to high social and environmental performance standards.

Eco-hotels in Portugal also showcase their commitment to sustainable practices through various certifications. Some well-known certifications for eco-hotels include EarthCheck, The Long Run, Breeam, and Leed. These certifications demonstrate that the hotels have implemented sustainable initiatives and are actively reducing their environmental impact.

Additionally, consider supporting community-driven businesses that partner with NGOs or grassroots organizations. These businesses work closely with local communities and contribute to their development, creating a positive and inclusive travel experience.

Eco-Hotel Certifications

Certification Description
EarthCheck A world-leading scientific benchmarking and certification program that helps hotels and tourism operators reduce their environmental impact.
The Long Run A certification for hotels and travel providers committed to nature conservation, community support, and cultural heritage preservation.
Breeam A sustainability assessment and certification method for buildings, which evaluates their environmental, social, and economic performance.
Leed A globally recognized green building rating system that promotes sustainable design, construction, and operation practices.

By choosing accommodations and businesses with these responsible accreditations, you can contribute to a more sustainable and community-driven travel experience in Portugal.

Sustainable Dining Choices: Reducing Your Foodprint

When it comes to sustainable dining, choosing restaurants that prioritize locally sourced and organic ingredients is key. By doing so, you not only support small producers and biodynamic farmers but also reduce the carbon footprint associated with food miles. Here are some tips to help you make sustainable dining choices during your trip to Portugal:

  1. Opt for restaurants that use locally sourced and organic ingredients: Look for eateries that prioritize local, seasonal produce and support the community. By choosing restaurants that source their ingredients locally, you contribute to the local economy and reduce the environmental impact associated with long-distance transportation.
  2. Avoid imported food: Opt for dishes that feature locally grown ingredients rather than imported ones. By choosing local options, you not only support local farmers but also reduce the carbon emissions associated with transportation.
  3. Limit consumption of meat, especially beef: Livestock farming, particularly beef production, is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. Consider opting for plant-based or vegetarian meals during your stay in Portugal. If you do choose to consume meat, opt for poultry or sustainably sourced seafood instead.
  4. Choose fish that is line-caught or sustainably farmed: Overfishing and destructive fishing practices have a detrimental impact on marine ecosystems. When dining out, choose seafood options that are line-caught or sustainably farmed to support responsible fishing practices.

Making sustainable dining choices not only allows you to enjoy delicious meals during your trip but also helps reduce your impact on the environment. By supporting restaurants that prioritize locally sourced ingredients, you contribute to a more sustainable food system and promote the well-being of local communities.

Energy and Water Conservation: Supporting Eco-friendly Practices

When choosing accommodations in Portugal, it’s important to prioritize energy and water conservation. Look for hotels that have implemented sustainable practices to minimize their environmental impact. By supporting these establishments, you contribute to the overall goal of reducing energy consumption and preserving water resources.

Sustainable Water Management

Consider staying at hotels that utilize innovative water conservation methods. Look for establishments that:

  • Collect rainwater for non-potable uses, such as irrigation
  • Install low-flow showers and toilets to reduce water consumption
  • Recycle greywater for secondary purposes

By implementing these initiatives, hotels can significantly reduce their water usage and promote responsible water management.

Renewable Energy Measures

Support accommodations in Portugal that prioritize renewable energy sources. Look for hotels that have:

  • Installed solar panels to harness the power of the sun
  • Utilized wind turbines to generate clean energy
  • Implemented energy-efficient lighting and appliances

By opting for accommodations with these renewable energy measures, you actively contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting a more sustainable energy future.

Green Housekeeping Practices

Another important aspect to consider is the housekeeping practices of the hotel. Look for establishments that:

  • Encourage guests to reuse towels and bedding to reduce linen replenishment
  • Minimize the use of single-use plastic amenities
  • Avoid unnecessary gift items that generate waste

By supporting hotels with green housekeeping practices, you play a part in reducing waste and supporting a circular economy.

Example Table: Comparing Energy and Water Conservation Practices

Accommodation Water Conservation Measures Renewable Energy Sources Green Housekeeping Practices
Hotel A Rainwater collection, low-flow showers and toilets, greywater recycling Solar panels Towel and linen reuse program, minimal single-use plastics
Hotel B No water conservation measures No renewable energy sources Standard housekeeping practices
Hotel C Minimal water conservation measures Wind turbines No specific green housekeeping practices

Choosing accommodations that prioritize energy and water conservation not only benefits the environment but also encourages other establishments to adopt sustainable practices. By making conscious decisions about where you stay, you can contribute to a more eco-friendly tourism industry in Portugal.

Packing Light: Reducing Carbon Footprint

When it comes to sustainable travel, one often overlooked aspect is packing light. By keeping your luggage to a minimum, you can significantly reduce your carbon footprint during transportation.

When you travel with heavy bags, you contribute to increased fuel consumption. The additional weight of your luggage adds to the overall weight of the aircraft, requiring more fuel to power the journey. By packing light, you help decrease fuel consumption and the greenhouse gas emissions associated with it.

To pack light, opt for a carry-on case that meets airline size restrictions. This allows you to avoid checking in large, heavy suitcases that contribute to unnecessary fuel consumption. Additionally, practice thoughtful packing by selecting versatile clothing items that can be mixed and matched, minimizing the number of outfits you need to bring.

Consider using solid shampoo and soap bars instead of travel-sized toiletry bottles. These sustainable alternatives eliminate the need for single-use plastics and reduce waste, further reducing your environmental impact.

Carbon Offsetting: Balancing Your Environmental Impact

While carbon offsetting should be a last resort, it can help compensate for your environmental impact when flying. Many airlines offer the option to buy carbon offsets, which fund projects that reduce carbon emissions elsewhere, such as tree planting initiatives. Offset your flights through reputable organizations like Tree Sisters to support reforestation and carbon reduction efforts.

How does carbon offsetting work?

When you purchase carbon offsets, the funds are invested in projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, effectively balancing out the carbon footprint of your flight. These projects can involve activities like reforestation, renewable energy development, methane capture, or energy efficiency initiatives.

  • Reforestation: Trees absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen, helping to offset emissions.
  • Renewable energy: Investing in wind, solar, or hydroelectric power projects reduces reliance on fossil fuels.
  • Methane capture: Landfills and farms produce methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Capturing and utilizing methane can prevent its release into the atmosphere.
  • Energy efficiency: Improving energy efficiency in buildings and industries reduces overall energy consumption and associated carbon emissions.

By supporting these projects, you can contribute to the global efforts in tackling climate change and reducing carbon emissions.

Choosing reputable organizations

When offsetting your flights, it’s important to choose reputable organizations that have robust mechanisms in place to ensure the integrity and effectiveness of their offset projects. Look for organizations that provide transparency and third-party verification of their offsetting activities.

Tree Sisters is one such organization that focuses on reforestation projects. They partner with communities around the world to restore forests and support communities that rely on forests for their livelihoods. By offsetting your flights through Tree Sisters, you can be confident that your contributions are making a positive impact on the environment.

Take responsibility for your environmental impact

While carbon offsetting can help balance out the environmental impact of your flights, it’s important to remember that it should be a last resort. Prioritizing sustainable travel choices, such as opting for greener modes of transportation and reducing your overall carbon footprint, should always be the first step. However, if flying is necessary, carbon offsetting can be a valuable tool in mitigating your environmental impact.

Pros of Carbon Offsetting Cons of Carbon Offsetting
Offsetting your flights can help support projects that reduce carbon emissions. It should be a last resort, as reducing emissions at the source is more effective.
Offsetting allows you to take immediate action to address your carbon footprint. Not all offset projects are equally effective, and some may lack proper verification.
Supporting reputable organizations can contribute to important environmental initiatives. Offsets do not directly reduce emissions from your flight, but rather support emissions reductions elsewhere.

Remember, carbon offsetting is just one tool in the larger effort to combat climate change. It’s essential to combine offsetting with sustainable travel choices and a commitment to reducing your overall environmental footprint. By considering the environmental impact of your travel and taking steps to minimize it, you can help create a more sustainable future for travel.

Decolonizing Travel: Responsible Engagement

When engaging in travel, it is crucial to ensure that your contributions are responsible and constructive, particularly when visiting communities that have been affected by historical inequalities. Embracing the concept of responsible engagement allows you to make a positive impact and avoid perpetuating power imbalances.

Avoiding voluntourism practices that can unintentionally contribute to these imbalances is paramount. Instead, consider identifying your unique skills and reaching out to NGOs or grassroots organizations that are already working on sustainable development projects within the community. This approach allows you to offer meaningful support that aligns with the community’s actual needs and priorities.

Respect for local cultures and traditions is also essential. When traveling in Portugal, take the time to learn about the customs and traditions of the communities you are visiting. Be mindful of appropriate behavior and dress, and seek permission before taking photographs, especially when it comes to children. This ensures that you are engaging respectfully and preserving the dignity and privacy of the local people.

Responsible Engagement Tips:

  • Research NGOs or grassroots organizations and connect with them before your trip
  • Offer your skills and expertise in a way that aligns with community needs
  • Respect and learn about local cultures and traditions
  • Seek permission before taking photographs, especially of children

By practicing responsible engagement, you can contribute to the empowerment and well-being of the communities you visit while fostering meaningful connections and cultural exchange.

Pros of Responsible Engagement Cons of Voluntourism
Positive impact on local communities Can perpetuate power imbalances
Offers meaningful support based on community needs May prioritize volunteering experiences over community impact
Promotes cultural exchange and understanding Can lead to superficial interactions and cultural appropriation
Respects local cultures and traditions May disregard local customs and traditions

Empowering Hard-Hit Communities: Rebuilding Through Tourism

When it comes to choosing your travel destinations in Portugal, consider those that have experienced natural disasters. These communities often require an injection of income from tourism to support their recovery efforts. By planning your trip thoughtfully, you can contribute to job creation and economic empowerment, helping these communities rebuild and thrive once again.

One way to support these communities is by booking your trip through responsible tour operators like Intrepid Travel. They prioritize job opportunities for women, youth, and minorities, ensuring a more inclusive and equitable tourism industry. By choosing such operators, you can maximize the positive impact of your visit and help drive positive change in these hard-hit communities.

The Economic Impact of Tourism in Rebuilding Communities

When natural disasters strike, the local economy takes a significant hit. Rebuilding efforts can be long and challenging, requiring substantial financial resources. Tourism plays a crucial role in providing much-needed income and employment opportunities to support these communities in their recovery process.

By visiting and spending money in these areas, tourists contribute to the local economy, which in turn helps rebuild the infrastructure, creates new jobs, and supports the livelihoods of the residents. Furthermore, the presence of tourists can help attract investments and resources needed for long-term recovery and development.

Table: Economic Impact of Tourism in Rebuilding Communities

Impact Description
Job Creation Tourism generates employment opportunities in various sectors such as hospitality, transportation, and local services.
Income Generation Tourism brings in revenue that can be used to rebuild infrastructure, support small businesses, and invest in community development projects.
Community Empowerment Tourism can empower local communities by creating opportunities for entrepreneurship, skill development, and cultural preservation.
Infrastructure Development Tourism income can be utilized to rebuild damaged infrastructure, such as roads, buildings, and public amenities.
Resilience Building Tourism helps communities diversify their income sources, reducing their vulnerability to future disasters.

By actively choosing destinations affected by natural disasters and supporting responsible operators, you can play a vital role in rebuilding these communities and creating a positive and sustainable future for them.

Eco-friendly Portugal: Green Travel Tips for Environmentalists

Off the Beaten Track: Avoiding Overtourism

When planning your trip to Portugal, consider exploring lesser-known destinations to avoid contributing to overtourism. By venturing off the beaten track, you can experience more authentic, affordable, and less crowded experiences.

Underrated cities, local neighborhoods, and natural attractions offer unique opportunities to engage with the local culture and support local businesses and communities.

Here are some recommendations to help you explore off the beaten track:

  • Research lesser-known cities and towns: Discover hidden gems that are often overshadowed by popular tourist destinations. These places may offer a more genuine and less crowded experience.
  • Explore local neighborhoods: Venture beyond the main tourist areas and immerse yourself in the local culture. Visit local markets, cafes, and shops to support the local economy.
  • Discover natural attractions: Portugal is known for its stunning natural landscapes. Explore national parks, hiking trails, and secluded beaches for a peaceful and untouched experience.

Venturing off the beaten track not only allows you to avoid the negative impacts of overtourism but also helps to support the local economy and preserve the authenticity of the destination.

Common Sense Eco-Actions: Small Steps, Big Impact

During your trip to Portugal, you can make a positive difference for the environment by practicing simple and common-sense eco-actions. By making sustainable choices and embracing eco-friendly actions, you can contribute to a greener and more sustainable travel experience. Here are some small steps you can take to make a big impact on your environmental footprint:

  • Carry a reusable water bottle: Reduce plastic waste by carrying a refillable water bottle with you. Fill it up at water fountains or ask restaurants and cafes to refill it for you.
  • Choose sustainable modes of transportation: Opt for walking, biking, or using public transport whenever possible. These modes of transport have lower carbon emissions compared to private cars or taxis.
  • Consider renting a small, fuel-efficient car: If you need a car for your travels, choose a small and fuel-efficient vehicle. This helps reduce fuel consumption and emissions.
  • Minimize plastic consumption: Say no to single-use plastics and choose alternatives like reusable shopping bags, metal straws, and bamboo cutlery. Avoid buying products with excessive packaging.
  • Support local businesses and markets: By shopping at local markets and supporting small businesses, you promote sustainable practices and contribute to the local economy.

By practicing these eco-friendly actions and making sustainable choices, you can become a responsible traveler and help protect the environment during your trip to Portugal. Remember, even small steps can make a big impact!


Embracing green travel in Portugal is possible through sustainable tourism practices. By following these tips, you can minimize your environmental footprint, support local communities, and have a rewarding and eco-conscious vacation. Choose responsible accommodations that prioritize energy and water conservation, and have certifications such as EarthCheck, The Long Run, Breeam, or Leed.

Make sustainable dining choices by opting for restaurants that use locally sourced and organic ingredients, reducing food miles and supporting small producers. Reduce waste by choosing accommodations and restaurants that actively minimize their use of single-use plastics. Explore off the beaten track destinations to avoid contributing to overtourism, and have more authentic and less crowded experiences.

Together, we can create a more sustainable future for travel in Portugal. By making responsible choices, reducing waste, and supporting local businesses, we can protect the environment, preserve natural resources, and contribute to the well-being of local communities. Choose green travel options, practice sustainable travel tips, and discover the beauty of eco-friendly destinations in Portugal.


What is greenwashing?

Greenwashing refers to misleading marketing practices that make a company appear more environmentally friendly than it actually is.

How can I ensure responsible booking?

Before booking accommodations in Portugal, research the company’s ownership, values, and commitment to sustainability.

What is slow travel?

Slow travel involves embracing land-based travel options such as electric cars, bikes, or kayaks to minimize carbon footprint and appreciate the journey.

How can I promote inclusivity and human rights in my travels?

Choose travel companies that prioritize inclusivity, human rights, and supporting marginalized communities.

How can I minimize single-use plastics while on vacation?

Be conscious of your plastic waste and choose accommodations and restaurants that actively minimize their use of single-use plastics.

What accreditations should I look for in eco-friendly establishments?

Look for certifications such as B Corp, EarthCheck, The Long Run, Breeam, and Leed, and support community-driven businesses that partner with NGOs or grassroots organizations.

How can I make sustainable dining choices in Portugal?

Choose restaurants that use locally sourced and organic ingredients to reduce food miles and support small producers and biodynamic farmers.

What should I consider when choosing eco-friendly accommodations?

Look for hotels that prioritize energy and water conservation, collect rainwater, and utilize renewable energy sources.

How can I reduce my carbon footprint when traveling to Portugal?

Pack light to reduce fuel consumption during transportation and consider using solid shampoo and soap bars to eliminate the need for travel-sized toiletry bottles.

How can I balance my environmental impact when flying?

Consider carbon offsetting through reputable organizations to support projects that reduce carbon emissions elsewhere.

How can I engage responsibly with local communities?

Avoid voluntourism practices that perpetuate power imbalances and instead offer meaningful support to NGOs or grassroots organizations.

How can I contribute to the economic empowerment of communities in Portugal?

Choose destinations that have been affected by natural disasters to support their recovery and consider booking through tour operators that prioritize job opportunities for women, youth, and minorities.

How can I help avoid overtourism?

Opt for lesser-known destinations in Portugal to reduce overcrowding and support local businesses and communities.

What are some common-sense eco-actions I can take during my trip?

Carry a reusable water bottle, choose sustainable modes of transportation, minimize plastic consumption, and support local businesses and markets.

Eco-friendly Portugal: Green Travel Tips for Environmentalists

Portuguese Language Tips: Communicating on Your Trip

Eco-friendly Portugal: Green Travel Tips for Environmentalists

Digital Nomads: A Guide to Remote Working

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.